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Bob The Magic Custodian
Summary: Everyone knows that when you give your assets to someone else, they always keep them safe. If this is true for individuals, it is certainly true for businesses. Custodians always tell the truth and manage funds properly. They won't have any interest in taking the assets as an exchange operator would. Auditors tell the truth and can't be misled. That's because organizations that are regulated are incapable of lying and don't make mistakes. First, some background. Here is a summary of how custodians make us more secure: Previously, we might give Alice our crypto assets to hold. There were risks:
Alice might take the assets and disappear.
Alice might spend the assets and pretend that she still has them (fractional model).
Alice might store the assets insecurely and they'll get stolen.
Alice might give the assets to someone else by mistake or by force.
Alice might lose access to the assets.
But "no worries", Alice has a custodian named Bob. Bob is dressed in a nice suit. He knows some politicians. And he drives a Porsche. "So you have nothing to worry about!". And look at all the benefits we get:
Alice can't take the assets and disappear (unless she asks Bob or never gives them to Bob).
Alice can't spend the assets and pretend that she still has them. (Unless she didn't give them to Bob or asks him for them.)
Alice can't store the assets insecurely so they get stolen. (After all - she doesn't have any control over the withdrawal process from any of Bob's systems, right?)
Alice can't give the assets to someone else by mistake or by force. (Bob will stop her, right Bob?)
Alice can't lose access to the funds. (She'll always be present, sane, and remember all secrets, right?)
See - all problems are solved! All we have to worry about now is:
Bob might take the assets and disappear.
Bob might spend the assets and pretend that he still has them (fractional model).
Bob might store the assets insecurely and they'll get stolen.
Bob might give the assets to someone else by mistake or by force.
Bob might lose access to the assets.
It's pretty simple. Before we had to trust Alice. Now we only have to trust Alice, Bob, and all the ways in which they communicate. Just think of how much more secure we are! "On top of that", Bob assures us, "we're using a special wallet structure". Bob shows Alice a diagram. "We've broken the balance up and store it in lots of smaller wallets. That way", he assures her, "a thief can't take it all at once". And he points to a historic case where a large sum was taken "because it was stored in a single wallet... how stupid". "Very early on, we used to have all the crypto in one wallet", he said, "and then one Christmas a hacker came and took it all. We call him the Grinch. Now we individually wrap each crypto and stick it under a binary search tree. The Grinch has never been back since." "As well", Bob continues, "even if someone were to get in, we've got insurance. It covers all thefts and even coercion, collusion, and misplaced keys - only subject to the policy terms and conditions." And with that, he pulls out a phone-book sized contract and slams it on the desk with a thud. "Yep", he continues, "we're paying top dollar for one of the best policies in the country!" "Can I read it?' Alice asks. "Sure," Bob says, "just as soon as our legal team is done with it. They're almost through the first chapter." He pauses, then continues. "And can you believe that sales guy Mike? He has the same year Porsche as me. I mean, what are the odds?" "Do you use multi-sig?", Alice asks. "Absolutely!" Bob replies. "All our engineers are fully trained in multi-sig. Whenever we want to set up a new wallet, we generate 2 separate keys in an air-gapped process and store them in this proprietary system here. Look, it even requires the biometric signature from one of our team members to initiate any withdrawal." He demonstrates by pressing his thumb into the display. "We use a third-party cloud validation API to match the thumbprint and authorize each withdrawal. The keys are also backed up daily to an off-site third-party." "Wow that's really impressive," Alice says, "but what if we need access for a withdrawal outside of office hours?" "Well that's no issue", Bob says, "just send us an email, call, or text message and we always have someone on staff to help out. Just another part of our strong commitment to all our customers!" "What about Proof of Reserve?", Alice asks. "Of course", Bob replies, "though rather than publish any blockchain addresses or signed transaction, for privacy we just do a SHA256 refactoring of the inverse hash modulus for each UTXO nonce and combine the smart contract coefficient consensus in our hyperledger lightning node. But it's really simple to use." He pushes a button and a large green checkmark appears on a screen. "See - the algorithm ran through and reserves are proven." "Wow", Alice says, "you really know your stuff! And that is easy to use! What about fiat balances?" "Yeah, we have an auditor too", Bob replies, "Been using him for a long time so we have quite a strong relationship going! We have special books we give him every year and he's very efficient! Checks the fiat, crypto, and everything all at once!" "We used to have a nice offline multi-sig setup we've been using without issue for the past 5 years, but I think we'll move all our funds over to your facility," Alice says. "Awesome", Bob replies, "Thanks so much! This is perfect timing too - my Porsche got a dent on it this morning. We have the paperwork right over here." "Great!", Alice replies. And with that, Alice gets out her pen and Bob gets the contract. "Don't worry", he says, "you can take your crypto-assets back anytime you like - just subject to our cancellation policy. Our annual management fees are also super low and we don't adjust them often". How many holes have to exist for your funds to get stolen? Just one. Why are we taking a powerful offline multi-sig setup, widely used globally in hundreds of different/lacking regulatory environments with 0 breaches to date, and circumventing it by a demonstrably weak third party layer? And paying a great expense to do so? If you go through the list of breaches in the past 2 years to highly credible organizations, you go through the list of major corporate frauds (only the ones we know about), you go through the list of all the times platforms have lost funds, you go through the list of times and ways that people have lost their crypto from identity theft, hot wallet exploits, extortion, etc... and then you go through this custodian with a fine-tooth comb and truly believe they have value to add far beyond what you could, sticking your funds in a wallet (or set of wallets) they control exclusively is the absolute worst possible way to take advantage of that security. The best way to add security for crypto-assets is to make a stronger multi-sig. With one custodian, what you are doing is giving them your cryptocurrency and hoping they're honest, competent, and flawlessly secure. It's no different than storing it on a really secure exchange. Maybe the insurance will cover you. Didn't work for Bitpay in 2015. Didn't work for Yapizon in 2017. Insurance has never paid a claim in the entire history of cryptocurrency. But maybe you'll get lucky. Maybe your exact scenario will buck the trend and be what they're willing to cover. After the large deductible and hopefully without a long and expensive court battle. And you want to advertise this increase in risk, the lapse of judgement, an accident waiting to happen, as though it's some kind of benefit to customers ("Free institutional-grade storage for your digital assets.")? And then some people are writing to the OSC that custodians should be mandatory for all funds on every exchange platform? That this somehow will make Canadians as a whole more secure or better protected compared with standard air-gapped multi-sig? On what planet? Most of the problems in Canada stemmed from one thing - a lack of transparency. If Canadians had known what a joke Quadriga was - it wouldn't have grown to lose $400m from hard-working Canadians from coast to coast to coast. And Gerald Cotten would be in jail, not wherever he is now (at best, rotting peacefully). EZ-BTC and mister Dave Smilie would have been a tiny little scam to his friends, not a multi-million dollar fraud. Einstein would have got their act together or been shut down BEFORE losing millions and millions more in people's funds generously donated to criminals. MapleChange wouldn't have even been a thing. And maybe we'd know a little more about CoinTradeNewNote - like how much was lost in there. Almost all of the major losses with cryptocurrency exchanges involve deception with unbacked funds. So it's great to see transparency reports from BitBuy and ShakePay where someone independently verified the backing. The only thing we don't have is:
ANY CERTAINTY BALANCES WEREN'T EXCLUDED. Quadriga's largest account was $70m. 80% of funds are in 20% of accounts (Pareto principle). All it takes is excluding a few really large accounts - and nobody's the wiser. A fractional platform can easily pass any audit this way.
ANY VISIBILITY WHATSOEVER INTO THE CUSTODIANS. BitBuy put out their report before moving all the funds to their custodian and ShakePay apparently can't even tell us who the custodian is. That's pretty important considering that basically all of the funds are now stored there.
ANY IDEA ABOUT THE OTHER EXCHANGES. In order for this to be effective, it has to be the norm. It needs to be "unusual" not to know. If obscurity is the norm, then it's super easy for people like Gerald Cotten and Dave Smilie to blend right in.
It's not complicated to validate cryptocurrency assets. They need to exist, they need to be spendable, and they need to cover the total balances. There are plenty of credible people and firms across the country that have the capacity to reasonably perform this validation. Having more frequent checks by different, independent, parties who publish transparent reports is far more valuable than an annual check by a single "more credible/official" party who does the exact same basic checks and may or may not publish anything. Here's an example set of requirements that could be mandated:
First report within 1 month of launching, another within 3 months, and further reports at minimum every 6 months thereafter.
No auditor can be repeated within a 12 month period.
All reports must be public, identifying the auditor and the full methodology used.
All auditors must be independent of the firm being audited with no conflict of interest.
Reports must include the percentage of each asset backed, and how it's backed.
The auditor publishes a hash list, which lists a hash of each customer's information and balances that were included. Hash is one-way encryption so privacy is fully preserved. Every customer can use this to have 100% confidence they were included.
If we want more extensive requirements on audits, these should scale upward based on the total assets at risk on the platform, and whether the platform has loaned their assets out.
There are ways to structure audits such that neither crypto assets nor customer information are ever put at risk, and both can still be properly validated and publicly verifiable. There are also ways to structure audits such that they are completely reasonable for small platforms and don't inhibit innovation in any way. By making the process as reasonable as possible, we can completely eliminate any reason/excuse that an honest platform would have for not being audited. That is arguable far more important than any incremental improvement we might get from mandating "the best of the best" accountants. Right now we have nothing mandated and tons of Canadians using offshore exchanges with no oversight whatsoever. Transparency does not prove crypto assets are safe. CoinTradeNewNote, Flexcoin ($600k), and Canadian Bitcoins ($100k) are examples where crypto-assets were breached from platforms in Canada. All of them were online wallets and used no multi-sig as far as any records show. This is consistent with what we see globally - air-gapped multi-sig wallets have an impeccable record, while other schemes tend to suffer breach after breach. We don't actually know how much CoinTrader lost because there was no visibility. Rather than publishing details of what happened, the co-founder of CoinTrader silently moved on to found another platform - the "most trusted way to buy and sell crypto" - a site that has no information whatsoever (that I could find) on the storage practices and a FAQ advising that “[t]rading cryptocurrency is completely safe” and that having your own wallet is “entirely up to you! You can certainly keep cryptocurrency, or fiat, or both, on the app.” Doesn't sound like much was learned here, which is really sad to see. It's not that complicated or unreasonable to set up a proper hardware wallet. Multi-sig can be learned in a single course. Something the equivalent complexity of a driver's license test could prevent all the cold storage exploits we've seen to date - even globally. Platform operators have a key advantage in detecting and preventing fraud - they know their customers far better than any custodian ever would. The best job that custodians can do is to find high integrity individuals and train them to form even better wallet signatories. Rather than mandating that all platforms expose themselves to arbitrary third party risks, regulations should center around ensuring that all signatories are background-checked, properly trained, and using proper procedures. We also need to make sure that signatories are empowered with rights and responsibilities to reject and report fraud. They need to know that they can safely challenge and delay a transaction - even if it turns out they made a mistake. We need to have an environment where mistakes are brought to the surface and dealt with. Not one where firms and people feel the need to hide what happened. In addition to a knowledge-based test, an auditor can privately interview each signatory to make sure they're not in coercive situations, and we should make sure they can freely and anonymously report any issues without threat of retaliation. A proper multi-sig has each signature held by a separate person and is governed by policies and mutual decisions instead of a hierarchy. It includes at least one redundant signature. For best results, 3of4, 3of5, 3of6, 4of5, 4of6, 4of7, 5of6, or 5of7. History has demonstrated over and over again the risk of hot wallets even to highly credible organizations. Nonetheless, many platforms have hot wallets for convenience. While such losses are generally compensated by platforms without issue (for example Poloniex, Bitstamp, Bitfinex, Gatecoin, Coincheck, Bithumb, Zaif, CoinBene, Binance, Bitrue, Bitpoint, Upbit, VinDAX, and now KuCoin), the public tends to focus more on cases that didn't end well. Regardless of what systems are employed, there is always some level of risk. For that reason, most members of the public would prefer to see third party insurance. Rather than trying to convince third party profit-seekers to provide comprehensive insurance and then relying on an expensive and slow legal system to enforce against whatever legal loopholes they manage to find each and every time something goes wrong, insurance could be run through multiple exchange operators and regulators, with the shared interest of having a reputable industry, keeping costs down, and taking care of Canadians. For example, a 4 of 7 multi-sig insurance fund held between 5 independent exchange operators and 2 regulatory bodies. All Canadian exchanges could pay premiums at a set rate based on their needed coverage, with a higher price paid for hot wallet coverage (anything not an air-gapped multi-sig cold wallet). Such a model would be much cheaper to manage, offer better coverage, and be much more reliable to payout when needed. The kind of coverage you could have under this model is unheard of. You could even create something like the CDIC to protect Canadians who get their trading accounts hacked if they can sufficiently prove the loss is legitimate. In cases of fraud, gross negligence, or insolvency, the fund can be used to pay affected users directly (utilizing the last transparent balance report in the worst case), something which private insurance would never touch. While it's recommended to have official policies for coverage, a model where members vote would fully cover edge cases. (Could be similar to the Supreme Court where justices vote based on case law.) Such a model could fully protect all Canadians across all platforms. You can have a fiat coverage governed by legal agreements, and crypto-asset coverage governed by both multi-sig and legal agreements. It could be practical, affordable, and inclusive. Now, we are at a crossroads. We can happily give up our freedom, our innovation, and our money. We can pay hefty expenses to auditors, lawyers, and regulators year after year (and make no mistake - this cost will grow to many millions or even billions as the industry grows - and it will be borne by all Canadians on every platform because platforms are not going to eat up these costs at a loss). We can make it nearly impossible for any new platform to enter the marketplace, forcing Canadians to use the same stagnant platforms year after year. We can centralize and consolidate the entire industry into 2 or 3 big players and have everyone else fail (possibly to heavy losses of users of those platforms). And when a flawed security model doesn't work and gets breached, we can make it even more complicated with even more people in suits making big money doing the job that blockchain was supposed to do in the first place. We can build a system which is so intertwined and dependent on big government, traditional finance, and central bankers that it's future depends entirely on that of the fiat system, of fractional banking, and of government bail-outs. If we choose this path, as history has shown us over and over again, we can not go back, save for revolution. Our children and grandchildren will still be paying the consequences of what we decided today. Or, we can find solutions that work. We can maintain an open and innovative environment while making the adjustments we need to make to fully protect Canadian investors and cryptocurrency users, giving easy and affordable access to cryptocurrency for all Canadians on the platform of their choice, and creating an environment in which entrepreneurs and problem solvers can bring those solutions forward easily. None of the above precludes innovation in any way, or adds any unreasonable cost - and these three policies would demonstrably eliminate or resolve all 109 historic cases as studied here - that's every single case researched so far going back to 2011. It includes every loss that was studied so far not just in Canada but globally as well. Unfortunately, finding answers is the least challenging part. Far more challenging is to get platform operators and regulators to agree on anything. My last post got no response whatsoever, and while the OSC has told me they're happy for industry feedback, I believe my opinion alone is fairly meaningless. This takes the whole community working together to solve. So please let me know your thoughts. Please take the time to upvote and share this with people. Please - let's get this solved and not leave it up to other people to do. Facts/background/sources (skip if you like):
The inspiration for the paragraph about splitting wallets was an actual quote from a Canadian company providing custodial services in response to the OSC consultation paper: "We believe that it will be in the in best interests of investors to prohibit pooled crypto assets or ‘floats’. Most Platforms pool assets, citing reasons of practicality and expense. The recent hack of the world’s largest Platform – Binance – demonstrates the vulnerability of participants’ assets when such concessions are made. In this instance, the Platform’s entire hot wallet of Bitcoins, worth over $40 million, was stolen, facilitated in part by the pooling of client crypto assets." "the maintenance of participants (and Platform) crypto assets across multiple wallets distributes the related risk and responsibility of security - reducing the amount of insurance coverage required and making insurance coverage more readily obtainable". For the record, their reply also said nothing whatsoever about multi-sig or offline storage.
In addition to the fact that the $40m hack represented only one "hot wallet" of Binance, and they actually had the vast majority of assets in other wallets (including mostly cold wallets), multiple real cases have clearly demonstrated that risk is still present with multiple wallets. Bitfinex, VinDAX, Bithumb, Altsbit, BitPoint, Cryptopia, and just recently KuCoin all had multiple wallets breached all at the same time, and may represent a significantly larger impact on customers than the Binance breach which was fully covered by Binance. To represent that simply having multiple separate wallets under the same security scheme is a comprehensive way to reduce risk is just not true.
Private insurance has historically never covered a single loss in the cryptocurrency space (at least, not one that I was able to find), and there are notable cases where massive losses were not covered by insurance. Bitpay in 2015 and Yapizon in 2017 both had insurance policies that didn't pay out during the breach, even after a lengthly court process. The same insurance that ShakePay is presently using (and announced to much fanfare) was describe by their CEO himself as covering “physical theft of the media where the private keys are held,” which is something that has never historically happened. As was said with regard to the same policy in 2018 - “I don’t find it surprising that Lloyd’s is in this space,” said Johnson, adding that to his mind the challenge for everybody is figuring out how to structure these policies so that they are actually protective. “You can create an insurance policy that protects no one – you know there are so many caveats to the policy that it’s not super protective.”
The most profitable policy for a private insurance company is one with the most expensive premiums that they never have to pay a claim on. They have no inherent incentive to take care of people who lost funds. It's "cheaper" to take the reputational hit and fight the claim in court. The more money at stake, the more the insurance provider is incentivized to avoid payout. They're not going to insure the assets unless they have reasonable certainty to make a profit by doing so, and they're not going to pay out a massive sum unless it's legally forced. Private insurance is always structured to be maximally profitable to the insurance provider.
The circumvention of multi-sig was a key factor in the massive Bitfinex hack of over $60m of bitcoin, which today still sits being slowly used and is worth over $3b. While Bitfinex used a qualified custodian Bitgo, which was and still is active and one of the industry leaders of custodians, and they set up 2 of 3 multi-sig wallets, the entire system was routed through Bitfinex, such that Bitfinex customers could initiate the withdrawals in a "hot" fashion. This feature was also a hit with the hacker. The multi-sig was fully circumvented.
Bitpay in 2015 was another example of a breach that stole 5,000 bitcoins. This happened not through the exploit of any system in Bitpay, but because the CEO of a company they worked with got their computer hacked and the hackers were able to request multiple bitcoin purchases, which Bitpay honoured because they came from the customer's computer legitimately. Impersonation is a very common tactic used by fraudsters, and methods get more extreme all the time.
A notable case in Canada was the Canadian Bitcoins exploit. Funds were stored on a server in a Rogers Data Center, and the attendee was successfully convinced to reboot the server "in safe mode" with a simple phone call, thus bypassing the extensive security and enabling the theft.
The very nature of custodians circumvents multi-sig. This is because custodians are not just having to secure the assets against some sort of physical breach but against any form of social engineering, modification of orders, fraudulent withdrawal attempts, etc... If the security practices of signatories in a multi-sig arrangement are such that the breach risk of one signatory is 1 in 100, the requirement of 3 independent signatures makes the risk of theft 1 in 1,000,000. Since hackers tend to exploit the weakest link, a comparable custodian has to make the entry and exit points of their platform 10,000 times more secure than one of those signatories to provide equivalent protection. And if the signatories beef up their security by only 10x, the risk is now 1 in 1,000,000,000. The custodian has to be 1,000,000 times more secure. The larger and more complex a system is, the more potential vulnerabilities exist in it, and the fewer people can understand how the system works when performing upgrades. Even if a system is completely secure today, one has to also consider how that system might evolve over time or work with different members.
By contrast, offline multi-signature solutions have an extremely solid record, and in the entire history of cryptocurrency exchange incidents which I've studied (listed here), there has only been one incident (796 exchange in 2015) involving an offline multi-signature wallet. It happened because the customer's bitcoin address was modified by hackers, and the amount that was stolen ($230k) was immediately covered by the exchange operators. Basically, the platform operators were tricked into sending a legitimate withdrawal request to the wrong address because hackers exploited their platform to change that address. Such an issue would not be prevented in any way by the use of a custodian, as that custodian has no oversight whatsoever to the exchange platform. It's practical for all exchange operators to test large withdrawal transactions as a general policy, regardless of what model is used, and general best practice is to diagnose and fix such an exploit as soon as it occurs.
False promises on the backing of funds played a huge role in the downfall of Quadriga, and it's been exposed over and over again (MyCoin, PlusToken, Bitsane, Bitmarket, EZBTC, IDAX). Even today, customers have extremely limited certainty on whether their funds in exchanges are actually being backed or how they're being backed. While this issue is not unique to cryptocurrency exchanges, the complexity of the technology and the lack of any regulation or standards makes problems more widespread, and there is no "central bank" to come to the rescue as in the 2008 financial crisis or during the great depression when "9,000 banks failed".
In addition to fraudulent operations, the industry is full of cases where operators have suffered breaches and not reported them. Most recently, Einstein was the largest case in Canada, where ongoing breaches and fraud were perpetrated against the platform for multiple years and nobody found out until the platform collapsed completely. While fraud and breaches suck to deal with, they suck even more when not dealt with. Lack of visibility played a role in the largest downfalls of Mt. Gox, Cryptsy, and Bitgrail. In some cases, platforms are alleged to have suffered a hack and keep operating without admitting it at all, such as CoinBene.
It surprises some to learn that a cryptographic solution has already existed since 2013, and gained widespread support in 2014 after Mt. Gox. Proof of Reserves is a full cryptographic proof that allows any customer using an exchange to have complete certainty that their crypto-assets are fully backed by the platform in real-time. This is accomplished by proving that assets exist on the blockchain, are spendable, and fully cover customer deposits. It does not prove safety of assets or backing of fiat assets.
If we didn't care about privacy at all, a platform could publish their wallet addresses, sign a partial transaction, and put the full list of customer information and balances out publicly. Customers can each check that they are on the list, that the balances are accurate, that the total adds up, and that it's backed and spendable on the blockchain. Platforms who exclude any customer take a risk because that customer can easily check and see they were excluded. So together with all customers checking, this forms a full proof of backing of all crypto assets.
However, obviously customers care about their private information being published. Therefore, a hash of the information can be provided instead. Hash is one-way encryption. The hash allows the customer to validate inclusion (by hashing their own known information), while anyone looking at the list of hashes cannot determine the private information of any other user. All other parts of the scheme remain fully intact. A model like this is in use on the exchange CoinFloor in the UK.
A Merkle tree can provide even greater privacy. Instead of a list of balances, the balances are arranged into a binary tree. A customer starts from their node, and works their way to the top of the tree. For example, they know they have 5 BTC, they plus 1 other customer hold 7 BTC, they plus 2-3 other customers hold 17 BTC, etc... until they reach the root where all the BTC are represented. Thus, there is no way to find the balances of other individual customers aside from one unidentified customer in this case.
Proposals such as this had the backing of leaders in the community including Nic Carter, Greg Maxwell, and Zak Wilcox. Substantial and significant effort started back in 2013, with massive popularity in 2014. But what became of that effort? Very little. Exchange operators continue to refuse to give visibility. Despite the fact this information can often be obtained through trivial blockchain analysis, no Canadian platform has ever provided any wallet addresses publicly. As described by the CEO of Newton "For us to implement some kind of realtime Proof of Reserves solution, which I'm not opposed to, it would have to ... Preserve our users' privacy, as well as our own. Some kind of zero-knowledge proof". Kraken describes here in more detail why they haven't implemented such a scheme. According to professor Eli Ben-Sasson, when he spoke with exchanges, none were interested in implementing Proof of Reserves.
And yet, Kraken's places their reasoning on a page called "Proof of Reserves". More recently, both BitBuy and ShakePay have released reports titled "Proof of Reserves and Security Audit". Both reports contain disclaimers against being audits. Both reports trust the customer list provided by the platform, leaving the open possibility that multiple large accounts could have been excluded from the process. Proof of Reserves is a blockchain validation where customers see the wallets on the blockchain. The report from Kraken is 5 years old, but they leave it described as though it was just done a few weeks ago. And look at what they expect customers to do for validation. When firms represent something being "Proof of Reserve" when it's not, this is like a farmer growing fruit with pesticides and selling it in a farmers market as organic produce - except that these are people's hard-earned life savings at risk here. Platforms are misrepresenting the level of visibility in place and deceiving the public by their misuse of this term. They haven't proven anything.
Fraud isn't a problem that is unique to cryptocurrency. Fraud happens all the time. Enron, WorldCom, Nortel, Bear Stearns, Wells Fargo, Moser Baer, Wirecard, Bre-X, and Nicola are just some of the cases where frauds became large enough to become a big deal (and there are so many countless others). These all happened on 100% reversible assets despite regulations being in place. In many of these cases, the problems happened due to the over-complexity of the financial instruments. For example, Enron had "complex financial statements [which] were confusing to shareholders and analysts", creating "off-balance-sheet vehicles, complex financing structures, and deals so bewildering that few people could understand them". In cryptocurrency, we are often combining complex financial products with complex technologies and verification processes. We are naïve if we think problems like this won't happen. It is awkward and uncomfortable for many people to admit that they don't know how something works. If we want "money of the people" to work, the solutions have to be simple enough that "the people" can understand them, not so confusing that financial professionals and technology experts struggle to use or understand them.
For those who question the extent to which an organization can fool their way into a security consultancy role, HB Gary should be a great example to look at. Prior to trying to out anonymous, HB Gary was being actively hired by multiple US government agencies and others in the private sector (with glowing testimonials). The published articles and hosted professional security conferences. One should also look at this list of data breaches from the past 2 years. Many of them are large corporations, government entities, and technology companies. These are the ones we know about. Undoubtedly, there are many more that we do not know about. If HB Gary hadn't been "outted" by anonymous, would we have known they were insecure? If the same breach had happened outside of the public spotlight, would it even have been reported? Or would HB Gary have just deleted the Twitter posts, brought their site back up, done a couple patches, and kept on operating as though nothing had happened?
In the case of Quadriga, the facts are clear. Despite past experience with platforms such as MapleChange in Canada and others around the world, no guidance or even the most basic of a framework was put in place by regulators. By not clarifying any sort of legal framework, regulators enabled a situation where a platform could be run by former criminal Mike Dhanini/Omar Patryn, and where funds could be held fully unchecked by one person. At the same time, the lack of regulation deterred legitimate entities from running competing platforms and Quadriga was granted a money services business license for multiple years of operation, which gave the firm the appearance of legitimacy. Regulators did little to protect Canadians despite Quadriga failing to file taxes from 2016 onward. The entire administrative team had resigned and this was public knowledge. Many people had suspicions of what was going on, including Ryan Mueller, who forwarded complaints to the authorities. These were ignored, giving Gerald Cotten the opportunity to escape without justice.
There are multiple issues with the SOC II model including the prohibitive cost (you have to find a third party accounting firm and the prices are not even listed publicly on any sites), the requirement of operating for a year (impossible for new platforms), and lack of any public visibility (SOC II are private reports that aren't shared outside the people in suits).
Securities frameworks are expensive. Sarbanes-Oxley is estimated to cost $5.1 million USD/yr for the average Fortune 500 company in the United States. Since "Fortune 500" represents the top 500 companies, that means well over $2.55 billion USD (~$3.4 billion CAD) is going to people in suits. Isn't the problem of trust and verification the exact problem that the blockchain is supposed to solve?
To use Quadriga as justification for why custodians or SOC II or other advanced schemes are needed for platforms is rather silly, when any framework or visibility at all, or even the most basic of storage policies, would have prevented the whole thing. It's just an embarrassment.
We are now seeing regulators take strong action. CoinSquare in Canada with multi-million dollar fines. BitMex from the US, criminal charges and arrests. OkEx, with full disregard of withdrawals and no communication. Who's next?
We have a unique window today where we can solve these problems, and not permanently destroy innovation with unreasonable expectations, but we need to act quickly. This is a unique historic time that will never come again.
Daily analysis of cryptocurrencies 20190930(Market index 27 — Fear state)
https://preview.redd.it/cj3ysjyoirp31.png?width=405&format=png&auto=webp&s=87dc996d5fae2556bc5bd1c22c6a8cceba09e286 European Banking Giant Developing Blockchain Platform And Digital Currency Payments For Transit Riders In Madrid The Municipal Transport Company of Madrid (EMT) is planning to launch a blockchain-powered application that will allow users to pay with digital currency for the company’s train and bus services across the city. Vottun, the company behind the development of the App, is one of 300 firms that submitted an application to participate in the Madrid in Motion project, which involves adding support for a digital payment system to the city’s public transportation system. To develop the payment system, the startup is partnering with Banco Santander, the fifth-largest bank in Europe. Earlier this month, Banco Santander became the first financial institution to issue an end-to-end debt-based bond on Ethereum’s public blockchain. IRS Releases ‘Tax Cheat’ Info Raising Concerns About Crypto Theft The U.S. Internal Revenue Service (IRS) released a new report and infographic on Sept 26 illustrating unpaid or underpaid taxes for the years 2011–2013. The numbers reflect estimates based on the last such findings, for the years 2008–2010. With commissioner Chuck Rettig citing the importance of voluntary compliance, and crypto’s popularity on the rise, the IRS is growing increasingly concerned with opportunities for tax evasion afforded by the new digital money. Japanese Government To Hold Blockchain-Themed Symposium On October 7 The Research Institute of Economy, Trade, and Industry (RIETI) will hold a symposium named Next·Blockchain on October 7. This is reportedly the first time for the Japanese government to host such a blockchain-focused conference. Attendees include Chris Dai, the Long Hash CEO, Steven Pu, the Taraxa founder and CEO, Yuzo Kano, bitFlyer co-founder and CEO, etc.
Encrypted project calendar（September 30, 2019）
INS/Insolar:Insolar (INS) will be on September 30thERD/Elrond:Elrond (ERD) will conduct main network test on September 30thNULS/NULS:The NULS team will plan to beta the ChainBOX in the third quarter.CS/Credits:Credits (CS) will exchange tokens and bug rewards in the third quarterQTUM/Qtum:Quantum Chain (QTUM) is expected to complete lightning network beta in the third quarterXEM/NEM:New World Bank (XEM) will release mobile wallet and computer wallet in the third quarterHC/HyperCash: hypercash (HC) will complete community management agreement in the third quarter
Encrypted project calendar（October 01, 2019）
HT/Huobi Token:The financial base public link jointly created by Firecoin and Nervos is expected to be open source in October.RVN/Ravencoin:Ravencoin (RVN) Ravencoin will perform a hard fork on October 1.SHND/StrongHands:StrongHands (SHND) SHND 1000: The 1st currency exchange event will be held on October 1.ADA/Cardano:Cardano (ADA) plans to hold technical consensus meeting in Amsterdam on October 1stXRC/Bitcoin Rhodium:Bitcoin Rhodium (XRC) will record account balance awards on October 1stPPC/Peercoin:Peercoin (PPC) will perform Peercoin v0.8 (code tang lang) hard fork on October 1st
Encrypted project calendar（October 02, 2019）
BNB/Binance Coin:The 2019 DELTA Summit will be held in Malta from October 2nd to 4th. The DELTA Summit is Malta’s official blockchain and digital innovation campaign.BTC/Bitcoin:The B.Tokyo 2019 conference will be held in Tokyo from October 2nd to 3rd.CAPP/Cappasity:The Cappasity (CAPP) London Science and Technology Festival will be held from October 2nd to 3rd, when the Cappasity project will be attended by the Science and Technology Festival.
Encrypted project calendar（October 03, 2019）
ETC/Ethereum Classic:The 2019 Ether Classic (ETC) Summit will be held in Vancouver on October 3–4ANT/Aragon:Aragon (ANT) is the AGP for the new mandatory community review period, with a deadline of October 3.
Encrypted project calendar（October 04, 2019）
KNC/Kyber Network:Kyber Network (KNC) will update the maxGasPrice parameter in the Kyber Network contract from 100 gwei to 50 gwei within 2 weeks after October 4.
Encrypted project calendar（October 05, 2019）
Ontology (ONT):Ony Ji will attend the blockchain event in Japan on October 5th and explain the practical application based on the ontology network.
Encrypted project calendar（October 06, 2019）
SPND/ Spendcoin:Spendcoin (SPND) will be online on October 6th
Encrypted project calendar（October 07, 2019）
GNO/Gnosis:Gnosis (GNO) will discuss the topic “Decentralized Trading Agreement Based on Ethereum” will be held in Osaka, Japan on October 7th. Kyber and Uniswap, Gnosis and Loopring will attend and give speeches.
Encrypted project calendar（October 08, 2019）
BTC/Bitcoin:The 2nd Global Digital Mining Summit will be held in Frankfurt, Germany from October 8th to 10th.
Encrypted project calendar（October 09, 2019）
CENNZ/Centrality:Centrality (CENNZ) will meet in InsurTechNZ Connect — Insurance and Blockchain on October 9th in Auckland.
Encrypted project calendar（October 10, 2019）
INB/Insight Chain:The Insight Chain (INB) INB public blockchain main network will be launched on October 10.VET/Vechain:VeChain (VET) will attend the BLOCKWALKS Blockchain Europe Conference on October 10.CAPP/Cappasity:Cappasity (CAPP) Cappasity will be present at the Osaka Global Innovation Forum in Osaka (October 10–11).
Encrypted project calendar（October 11, 2019）
OKB/OKB:OKB (OKB) OKEx series of talks will be held in Istanbul on October 11th to discuss “the rise of the Turkish blockchain.”
Encrypted project calendar（October 12, 2019）
BTC/Bitcoin:The 2019 Global Mining Leaders Summit will be held in Chengdu, China from October 12th to 14th.
Encrypted project calendar（October 14, 2019）
BCH/Bitcoin Cash:The ChainPoint 19 conference will be held in Armenia from October 14th to 15th.
Encrypted project calendar（October 15, 2019）
RUFF/RUFF Token:Ruff will end the three-month early bird program on October 15thKAT/Kambria:Kambria (KAT) exchanges ERC20 KAT for a 10% bonus on BEP2 KAT-7BB, and the token exchange reward will end on October 15.BTC/Bitcoin:The Blockchain Technology Investment Summit (CIS) will be held in Los Angeles from October 15th to 16th.
Encrypted project calendar（October 16, 2019）
BTC/Bitcoin:The 2019 Blockchain Life Summit will be held in Moscow, Russia from October 16th to 17th.MIOTA/IOTA:IOTA (MIOTA) IOTA will host a community event on the theme of “Technology Problem Solving and Testing IoT Devices” at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles on October 16.ETH/Ethereum:Ethereum launches Istanbul (Istanbul) main network upgrade, this main network upgrade involves 6 code upgrades.QTUM/Qtum:Qtum (QTUM) Qtum main network hard fork is scheduled for October 16.
Encrypted project calendar（October 18, 2019）
BTC/Bitcoin:The SEC will give a pass on the VanEck/SolidX ETF on October 18th and make a final decisionHB/HeartBout:HeartBout (HB) will officially release the Android version of the HeartBout app on October 18.
Recently, there was a minor upside correction in bitcoin above the $8,000 level against the US Dollar. The BTC/USD pair even climbed above the $8,200 resistance. Finally, the price spiked towards $8,400, but it failed to gain momentum. Moreover, there was no proper close above $8,200 and the 100 hourly simple moving average. As a result, the price started a fresh decline below the $8,000 support. It even broke the $7,700 level and traded to a new monthly low at $7,661. Besides, the current price action is bearish, with an immediate resistance near the $7,900 level. Additionally, 50% Fib retracement level of the recent decline from the $8,157 high to $7,661 low is also near the $7,900 level. The main resistance on the upside is near the $8,000 and $8,100 levels. More importantly, there is a key bearish trend line forming with resistance near $8,050 on the hourly chart of the BTC/USD pair. An intermediate resistance is near the $8,040 level, plus the 76.4% Fib retracement level of the recent decline from the $8,157 high to $7,661 low. Therefore, an upside break above the $8,000 and $8,100 levels is must for a decent recovery in bitcoin. The next key resistance is near the $8,400 level. Review previous articles:https://firstname.lastname@example.org Telegram： https://t.me/Lay126 Twitter：https://twitter.com/mianhuai8 Facebook：https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100022246432745 Reddi：https://www.reddit.com/useliuidaxmn LinkedIn：https://www.linkedin.com/in/liu-wei-294a12176/
We directly connect mobile network operators and end users globally on our blockchain-based marketplace. With Bubble Tone Blockchain, travelers can swiftly become legitimate local customers of any foreign operator in the country they are traveling to. They dont need to replace their SIM card, and they retain their home number. Travelers - Make calls and use data during travel worldwide at great local rates with direct connection to local operators - No need to change your SIM-card or phone number - Next generation messenger packed with amazing communication features User’s Interface part A brief demonstration how subscribers can be connected with local rates and LTE quality around the world. Operators and service providers - Any operator can become global without complex network integrations - Direct access to international telecom market with millions of new customers - Increase in revenue through distribution of value-added services Blockchain Telecom part Live demonstration of mobile carriers' interconnection via Blockchain. New Offers and Requests are created and broadcasted in real-time mode, and a new mobile profile was downloaded onto SIM-card of a subscriber. Bubbletone project consists of two main parts: Blockchain and Mobile App Bubbletone Blockchain Bubbletone replaces old-fashioned and costly roaming technology by implementing smart contracts into mobile operators' interactions. 1 Visited operator 1 Visited operator Any mobile operator can publish its own tariff plans as smart contracts ("Offers"). These Offers are visible to all operators and their subscribers Blockchain Subscriber 2 Request for mobile services abroad Home operator 3 Smart-contract ("Request") with Digital Identity hash and Financial Transaction Blockchain 4 It's enough to execute the smart-contract to receive money and identify a visitor 5 Servicing the subscriber directly by downloading its own mobile profile onto a SIM-card "over-the-air” Any mobile carrier can publish prepaid plans as smart contracts on Bubbletone Blockchain. These offers are visible to all other operators and their subscribers. When subscriber selects offer, a new smart contract is created with the subscribers digital identity and payment transaction directly to foreign operator. Sim card registered in the local mobile network Subscriber is authorized Payment is processed Service is provided Billing is transparent Tariffs are local Zero costs for operator Quality LTE / LTE+ Quick launch for operator Bubbletone GitHub Bubbletone Yellow pager Blockchain in Telecom Wiki Why big operators will join Bubbletone? Read on Medium Bubbletone App Direct connection to a local operator provides low rates and high LTE quality, with easy management using Bubbletone mobile app BETA version is already availabe in: Google PlayApp Store Marketplace connecting subscribers and local network operators globally Keeping domestic phone number during foreign trips Conference video and audio calls SMS in future - send a date and text for your SMS Burning messages Buy, keep and use domestic phone numbers in different countries 100+ other communication features Who we are: 20 years of experience in Telecom Industry Allo Incognito - our own medium-sized mobile operator in Russia since 2002 Allo Incognito Website 240k+ Premium Subscribers 42m USD Annual revenue 10k POS Bubbletone is trending UMT Tokens 22% Network Development Fund 220 000 000 UMT 50% Crowdsale 500 000 000 UMT 20% Founders 200 000 000 UMT 7.8% Team & Community Development Fund 78 000 000 UMT 0.2% Bounty fund 2 000 000 UMT Name: UMT Type: ERC-20 Function: Used in smart contracts to perform transactions. Can be used to top up user balance to pay for telecom services Total Supply: 1 000 000 000 tokens For sale: 50% All unsold tokens will be burnt and additional release of tokens will not be possible! Checked by clearify Bubbletone ICO 01.02 10.02 Stage 1 10.02 01.03 Stage 2 02.03 10.03 Stage 3 20.04 15.06 ICO Stage ICO ETH/UMT 1 ETH = 4000 UMT Vesting No vesting Minimum 0.1 ETH ICO starts: 20.04.18, 10AM (London time) Token price: 1 ETH = 4000 UMT Hard cap: 15 000 000 USD Accepted currencies: ETH, BTC Join White List to reserve your UMT Tokens JOIN WHITE LIST Our Team Key Team Yury Morozov CEO and Founder Co-founder of 4 active telecom companies Oleg Pravdin CTO Telecom visionary, founder of 3 start-ups in the USA, China and Russia. Irina Chertok Co-founder and Major Chief Board Director Sergei Ivanov CEO of "Allo Incognito" (mobile virtual network operator) Sergey Malcev Lead Blockchain Software Engineer Sergey Baloyan CMO and Head of IR Fedor Rozhnov CBDO Strategic Developer for Telco, Realized 2 MVNO-projects for Russian mobile market Kirill Maskaev CCO and Head of PR Maria Voronova Project Manager Stepan Gershuni Blockchain expert, co-founder @Block Notary Sergey Sevantsyan Blockchain expert, public speaker Developers and IT engineers team Michael Nazarenko Lead security and fault tolerance developer Sergey Prilutskiy Security expert, Blockchain architecture development Sergey Lepenkov Development of payment services and high-load applications in the telecommunication field Oleg Vintovkin Development of IT project Yandex Telephony; development BSS & OSS for mobile carriers Yury Vasilchikov Blockchain consultant, smart contracts developer Alexander Artemiev Bubbletone messenger architecture development, integration with mobile carriers Jackov Mayurov Bubbletone messenger project manager Ajmat Iqbal Bubbletone messenger software development leader Mir Monsoor Hossain Senior software developer Momi Monjil Ara Senior software developer Khandaker Raihan Hossain Senior software developer Md. Shafiqul Islam Front-end software developer Md Maniruzzaman Back-end software developer Alexey Makeev Smart contracts software engineer Varun Reddy Community Relations Mariana Bugaeva Head of design group Advisors Keith Teare Successful serial technology entrepreneur; Executive Chair at Accelerated Digital Ventures; TechCrunch founding shareholder and EasyNet, Europe’s first consumer Internet Service Provider Dr. Norman Lewis Telecom expert Norman was running PWC’s innovation programme, He also worked in Orange UK as a Director of Technology Research, Founding Director of Future-Diagnosis, Executive board member of the MIT Communications Futures Programme. Anders Larsson Anders worked in Ericsson Group for two decades to create the emerging technologies of 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G and IOT in 10 different countries Held various CTO roles and the role of Vice President for Mobile Broadband in Southeast Asia & Oceania AllcoinWiki Co-founder Top-5 Blockchain Advisor in the world Samson Lee Founder & CEO of CoinStreet; Executive Chairman of China (Guangdong, Hong Kong, Macau) Greater Bay Area TechFin Association; Co-founder of Hong Kong Blockchain Centre; Co-Founder of Ethereum south China and south Asia communities; Chief Crypto-economic Advisor of Gibraltar Blockchain Exchange; Advisor of Universa.io; Asia President of Next.TV Inc. and Chairman of STM Digital Group. Joakim Holmer Joakim is a telecom expert, who had experience in AT&T and Ericsson Group. 15 years in various technical leadership positions around the world. Joakim has also worked with Software System Sales. With hunger to develop that included everything from Mobile App start-ups to RedHat, SAP and Cisco. AllcoinWiki co-founder John Mun Co-Founder of Linker Coin; John obtained his MFE at UC Berkeley, then became a Market Maker, HFT trader and General Manager at one of South Korea's leading investment institutions Woori Investments and Securities. John’s finance and engineering background supported him strongly in the blockchain industry and now is also an expert in Smart Contract development. Gabriel Zanko Fintech entrepreneur-Advisor. Founder of MobileyourLife and involved in the AI-Fintech space providing solutions in the B2B space. ICO advisory in Fundraising Capital and International Business Development. Professor Jin Song Dong Director of the Institute for Integrated Intelligent System, Griffith University, Australia Gilbert A. Darrell Gilbert is founder of Horizon Communications, the innovative provider of decentralized wireless infrastructure. He has 18 years of experience in IT and Telecoms and led multiple projects for Fortune 500 companies, such as Microsoft, Energizer and Siemens. Vladimir Sirotinskiy CEO of Lingualeo, the market leader in online English language learning. Serial entrepreneur and business consultant Oleg Khokhlov Adviser & Legal Counsel of ICO Oleg Khokhlov is Partner with international law firm Goltsblat BLP, the Russian practice of Berwin Leighton Paisner (BLP), headquartered in London. Oleg was selected by peers for inclusion in The Best Lawyers in Russia 2013-2018 Editions in the field of Banking & Finance Law. He has been also highly recommended for Banking & Finance by IFLR1000 and Legal 500. Oleg has advised leading ICOs and venture fiat/cryptofunds. Maria Agranovskaya Blockchain and ICO Legal Expert. Managing Partner of GRAD Attorney Bar (30+ lawyers). Attorney at Law with 20+ years of experience. Working with cryptocurrency since 2010: ICO, trading, funds setup, etc. Over eight years running a multifamily office. Cross-border transactions, investments, asset management, deal and corporate structuring in various jurisdictions. M&A, international taxation Tech and Telecom leaders about Bubbletone Blockchain Roadmap Q1’2018 Initial version of smart contracts is ready. The first “Offer” and “Request” are on the Blockchain platform. Demonstration of the platform at Mobile World Congress in Barcelona (February’18). Integration with major eSIM platforms to download mobile profiles onto SIM cards Q2’2018 Web-API for integration of mobile operators and service providers. Integration of Digital Identity into Bubbletone app. Commercial launch, with “Offers” from 10+ mobile operators are on Blockchain, low rates in 80+ countries. Q3’2018 Global Mobile Profile approval by International Telecommunication Union. Update Mini Nodes to participate in processing smart contracts. BubbleTone Blockchain – White Paper Page 25 of 31 New features in the Bubbletone app: Voting platform based on Blockchain, 4K videoconferences, transfer of fiat money and crypto currencies Q4’2018 Expanding list of mobile operators and service providers connected to Bubbletone Blockchain Ecosystem. The first 1 million transactions are processed Q1-Q4’2019 Signing agreements with mobile operators worldwide to activate the Global Mobile Profile. First prototype of a global SIM-chip to be embedded into mobile devices. Expanding list of mobile operators and service providers connected to the Bubbletone Blockchain Ecosystem. 10 million transactions are processed Partners Bubbletone Community around the world Bubbletone Worldwide Tour Past Events May 14-16 TMForum, Nice, France May 14-16 Coindesk Consensus 2018, New York, USA May 2-3 Future Blockchain Summit, Dubai May 1-3 IOTX 2018, Dubai April 26-27 World Blockchain Summit, Moscow, Russia April 23-26 MVNO World Congress, Madrid, Spain April 18-19 Blockchain Expo, London, UK April 17-18 Blockchain Conference, Moscow, Russia April 16-17 World Blockchain Forum, Dubai April 8 Blockchain Tomorrow 21, Seoul, Korea April 4 Blockchain Conference, Berlin, Germany March 28 Blockchain Conference, Tel Aviv, Israel March 22 Tallinn Blockchain Conference, Tallinn, Estonia March 21-22 Cryprocurrency World Expo, Berlin, Germany 26 February - 01 March Mobile World Congress in Barcelona March 10 Crypto Investor Show, London, UK March 7-8 Blockchain Summit Zurich 2018, Zurich, Switzerland March 3-6 D10E Fintech Conference, Seoul, Korea March 2 Bubbletone Meet-Up, Singapore March 1 Blockchain & Bitcoin Conference, Istanbul, Turkey February 23 7th Korea Blockchain Symposium, Seoul February 27-28 Singapore Blockchain Summit 2018, Singapore 25-26 January Cryptoeconomy ICO London 22-24 January London Blockchain Week 2018 14 December Big ICO Roadshow, Moscow, Russia 8 December Crypto Space, Moscow, Russia 29-30 November Blockchain Expo in Santa Clara, California (booth 419) 29-30 November Block Show Asia in Singapore 14-15 November Telecom Conference in London 24-25 October World Blockchain Summit in Dubai 8-12 October GITEX Technology Week in Dubai, Stand E3-6 3-5 October Blockchain Solution Forum in Barcelona, Stand №100 26-27 September Telecom Conference in Singapore 25-26 September World Blockchain Forum in London FAQ How can I buy your tokens? Which cryptocurrencies are accepted? Which wallet should I use to receive tokens? What is the goal of your project? Is your product already working? Do you have a prototype or a beta version? Why do you have a blockchain in your project? How is your system going to expand? What are advantages for Node owners? What are the advantages of BubbleTone messenger? How do I operate all these other Sims on my phone? JOIN US Kucoin Binance Bit-Z Bibox Linkcoin Qryptos
The Bitcoin, Ethereum & Blockchain SuperConference 334 followers on LinkedIn Richard Jacobs discovered Bitcoin in 2013, by reading an article in the New York Times, but dismissed the idea ... The big conference Bitcoin London 2013 happened this Tuesday (2) in the British capital. Check out the major conclusions of the meeting. Image source 1. Who likes Bitcoin the best: Europe or the USA? The North-American regulators have been making Bitcoin’s life really difficult and the cryptocurrency startups are not happy. On the other hand,Read More Binance Research, the research arm of global crypto exchange Binance, has collated a series of predictions that Bitcoin market dominance will reach a figure of around 80% by the year 2020.. In this Q2 survey, it said that more than half of all the VIP and institutional clients it surveyed believed that Bitcoin dominance would be in the 40-60% range by the end of this year alone. Binance IEO Project, Band Protocol, Sees Coinbase Effect With Listing News; What Altcoin Is Next? ... London based fintech, Revolut, reports $140 million in losses in 2019 despite its cryptocurrency holdings growing to $123 million, a 200% increase from... Read more. Bitcoin News. Venezuela Signs In New Taxation Agreement That Will ‘Accept’ Petro Crypto Payments. Lujan Odera-August 13 ... The Bitcoin Ecosystem To kick off your education, Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin are pre-programmed to create a set amount of coins. Once this limit is reached, no new coins will be created. This creates scarcity. For instance, the algorithm that governs Bitcoin will create no more than 21 million Bitcoins. Think about this… There are 35 million … As per Binance Academy’s countdown, the ongoing Block Height of the world’s largest crypto is 593,994, whereas the block until halving is 36,006 as per the press time. The website also revealed the current market rate of BTC, which is 10,234.82. Bitcoin Halving-Well, Bitcoin Halving is an event in which the number of Bitcoin rewards which are generated gets divided by two. As per sources ... With Bitcoin getting more important and famous every day, the events around the cryptocurrency keep multiplying. And tomorrow is a big day, since the awaited Bitcoin London Conference, organized by st-ART, is already here! The one-day meeting between Bitcoin experts will happen at Level 39, One Canada Square, in Canary Wharf. The conference will startRead More The biggest Bitcoin and crypto influencers in the industry will be speaking at Bitcoin 2019. View the full list of speakers at Bitcoin 2019 Conference. BTC London was a conference quite different from both Bitcoin 2013 and Porcfest.While Bitcoin 2013 was a conference generally intended for fans of Bitcoin in general, and Porcfest an event for libertarians, most of whom were just starting to use Bitcoin, BTC London was targeted to a very specific group of people: wealthy individuals who are already heavily involved in investment or finance ...
Bitcoin: My 400 bitcoin bet paid off, but is it too late for others? - BBC News
This video is unavailable. Watch Queue Queue. Watch Queue Santiago, Chile- I will be speaking at a Bitcoin conference in New Orleans in early December. Is Bitcoin mankind's biggest experiment? Bitfinex premium. Bina... ANTONOPOULOS - THE FUTURE OF MONEY: How Bitcoin & Blockchain Become The World’s Currency - Part 1/2 - Duration: 45:52. London Real 229,736 views Entrepreneur Alessandra Sollberger funded her nutrition start-up off the back of an investment in Bitcoin. But as Rory Cellan-Jones hears, it may be too late for others to follow in her steps ... Jared Tate's talk at the London Digibyte meet up. Subscribe here and stay bullish. Don't forget to hit the bell icon to get an Instant notification for our new videos. Follow us on twitter https ...